The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval period is generally regarded as comprising the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but I have included fifteenth-century Italy in the Renaissance section.
After 1300 centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt; a series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death of 1346–1353, reduced the population by nearly half. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. France and Britain experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie of 1358 and the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the Hundred Years’ War up to 1453. In Britain this was followed almost immediately by the dynastic struggles of the Wars of the Roses. Meanwhile to the East although the Mongol Empire had distintegrated the power of the Golden Horde still extended to the mouth of the Danube, after centuries of struggle the Byzantine Empire finally collapsed with the fall of Constaninople in 1453, and Russia began its growth as a regional power.
The period ended with the establishment of the Tudor dynasty in Britain, the unification of Spain and the completion of the Reconquista, and the ‘discovery’ of the Americas.